Crop Science Department


Dr. Thomas Rufty
Distinguished Professor
Environmental Plant Biology

Department of Crop Science
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7620

Office: 4411A Williams Hall
Lab: 4411 Williams Hall
Office Ph: 919-515-3660
Lab Ph: 919-515-3637
Fax: 919-515-5315
  Contact Tom Rufty


B.S. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Economics
 Rutgers University, Agronomy
M.S. North Carolina State University, Plant Nutrition
Ph.D North Carolina State University, Plant Physiology


American Society of Plant Physiologists
Crop Science Society of America
Weed Science Society of America
Scandinavian Society of Plant Physiologists
European Society of Plant



Co-Director of the Center for Environmental Turfgrass Research and Education


  • Plant and plant community interactions with the environment
  • Physiological and genetic factors controlling plant response to stress
  • Crop and weed competition for resources
  • Root function and microbial interactions

Transport Regulation

Nutrient Interactions

N Losses to the Environment


N Transfer between Plants

Mycorrhizal Colonization

Nutritional and Temperature Stresses


Mechanism of Action

Relationship with Drought Tolerance

Genetic Manipulations for Tolerance


Laleh Bagherzadi, Thomas Sinclair, Maciej Zwieniecki, Francesca Secchi, William Hoffman, Thomas Carter, Thomas Rufty. 2017. Assessing water-related plant traits to explain slow-wilting in soybean PI 471938. Crop Improvement 

Sermons, S.M., T.R. Sinclair, T.M. Seversike, T.W. Rufty. 2017. Assessing transpiration estimates in tall fescue: The relationship among transpiration, growth, and vapor pressure deficits. Environmental Experimental Botany 137:119-127. 

Sinclair, T.R., J.M Devi, A. Shekoofa, S. Choudhary, W. Sadok, V. Vadez, M. Riar, T. Rufty. 2017. Limited-transpiration response to high vapor pressure deficit in crop species.  Plant Sci 260:109-118.  

Sinclair, T.R., A. Manandhar, A. Shekoofa, P. Rosas-Anderson, L. Bagherzadi, R. Schoppach, W. Sadok, T.W. Rufty. 2017. Pot binding as a variable confounding plant phenotype: theoretical derivation and experimental observations. Planta 245:729-735. 

Reynolds CR, GL Miller, DP Livingston, TW Rufty. 2016. Athletic field paint color impacts transpiration and canopy temperature in bermudagrass. Crop Science 56: 1-10. 

Riar MK, DS Carley, C Zhang, MS Schroeder-Moreno, DL Jordon, TM Webster, TW Rufty. 2016. Environmental influences on growth and reproduction of invasive Commelina benghalensis. International Journal of Agronomy, ID 5679249.

Shekoofa A, P Rosas-Anderson, DS Carley, TR Sinclair, TW Rufty. 2016. Limited transpiration under high vapor pressure deficits of creeping bentgrass by application of Daconil-Action. Planta 243: 421-427.  

Sinclair, T.R., T.W. Rufty. 2016. Grain crop yield rarely limited by leaf photosynthetic capacity. Science. Invited eLetter in response to publication Improving photosynthesis and crop productivity by accelerating recovery from photoprotection. 

Sinclair TR, TW Rufty. 2015. Genetic improvement of water and nitrogen use to increase crop yields: A whole plant physiological perspective. In P Drechsel, ed, Managing Water and Fertilizer for Sustainable Agricultural Intensification. IFA, IWMI, IPNI, IPI publishers. Pp 87-108.

Caiyan Lu, Daniel Bowman, Thomas Rufty, Wei Shi. 2015. Reactive nitrogen in turfgrass systems: relations to soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. Journal of Environmenal Quality 44:210-218.

Hussein Abdel-Haleem, Thomas E. Carter Jr., Thomas W. Rufty, H. Roger Boerma, Zenglu Li. 2014. Quantitative trait loci controlling aluminum tolerance in soybean: candidate gene and single nucleotide polymorphism marker discovery. Molecular Breeding 33:851-862.

Thomas M. Seversike, Shannon M. Sermons, Thomas R. Sinclair, Thomas E. Carter Jr., Thomas W. Rufty. 2014. Physiological properties of a drought-resistant wild soybean genotype: Transpiration control with soil drying and expression of root morphology. Plant and Soil 374:359-370.

Pablo Rosas-Anderson, Thomas R. Sinclair, Maria Balota, Shyam Tallury, Thomas G. Isleib and Thomas Rufty. 2014. Genetic Variation for Epidermal Conductance in Peanut. Crop Science 54:730-737.

Mandeep K. Riar, Janet F. Spears, Joseph C. Burns, David L. Jordan, Chenxi Zhang & Thomas W. Rufty. 2014. Persistence of Benghal Dayflower (Commelina benghalensis) in Sustainable Agronomic Systems: Potential Impacts of Hay Bale Storage, Animal Digestion, and Cultivation. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 38:283-298.

Pablo Rosas-Anderson, Avat Shekoofa, Thomas R. Sinclair, Maria Balota, Thomas G. Isleib, Shyam Tallury, Thomas Rufty. 2014. Genetic variation in peanut leaf maintenance and transpiration recovery from severe soil drying. Field Crops Research 158:65-72.

Seversike TM, SM Sermons, TR Sinclair, TE Carter, TW Rufty. 2013. Temperature interactions with transpiration response to vapor pressure deficit among cultivated and wild soybean genotypes. Physiologia Plantarum 148:62-73.

Sinclair TR, TW Rufty. 2013. Genetic improvement of water and nitrogen use to increase crop yields. In P Heffer, ed, Links Between Fertilizer Use and Nitrogen Management. International Plant Nutrition Institute, in press. 

Zhang C, TW Rufty, GL Miller, DC Bowman. 2013. Nitrate uptake rates of Kentucky bluegrass genotypes and their effect on nitrate absorption under competitive conditions. Crop Science 53:1179-1188.

Zhang C, GL Miller, TW Rufty, DC Bowman. 2013. Nitrate leaching from two Kentucky bluegrass cultivars as affected by nitrate uptake capacity and subsurface soil compaction. Crop Science 53:1722-1733.

Cheng L, FL Booker, C Tu, KO Burkey, L Zhou, HD Shew, TW Rufty, S Hu. 2012. CO2-enhancement of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increases organic carbon decomposition. Science 337:1084-1087.
Schroeder-Moreno, M. S. Tara L. Greaver, Shuxin Wang, Shujin Hu, T. Rufty. 2012. Mycorrhizal-mediated nitrogen acquisition in switchgrass under elevated temperatures and N enrichment. Global Change Biology Bioenergy 4:266-276.

Sermons SM, TM Seversike, TR Sinclair, EL Fiscus, TW Rufty. 2012. Temperature influences the ability of tall fescue to control transpiration in response to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit. Functional Plant Biology 39:979-986.
Sinclair TR, TW Rufty. 2012. Nitrogen and Water Resources Commonly Limit Crop Yield Increases, Not Necessarily Plant Genetics. Global Food Security 1:94-98.
Dell EA, SD Seth Carley, T Rufty, W Shi. 2012. Heat stress and N fertilization affect soil microbial and enzyme activities in the creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) rhizosphere. Applied Soil Ecology 56:19-26.

Reynolds WC, GL Miller, TW Rufty. 2012. Athletic field turf paint impacts light spectral quality and turfgrass photosynthesis. Crop Science 52: 1-10. 

Riar MK, TM Webster, BJ Brecke, DL Jordon, MG Burton, TW Rufty. 2012. Benghal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis) seed viability in soil. Weed Sci 60:589-592.

Liu Y., E. Dell, H. Yao, T. Rufty, W. Shi.  2011. Microbial and soil properties in bentgrass putting greens: impacts of nitrogen fertilization rates. Geoderma 162: 215-221.

Cheng L, FL Booker, KO Burkey, T Cong, HE Shew, TW Rufty, EL Fiscus, JL Forest, S Hu. 2011. Soil microbial responses to elevated CO2 and O3 in a nitrogen-aggrading agroecosystem. PLoS One. 2011; 6(6): e21377 .

Seth-Carley D, Goodman D, Sermons S, Miller G, Shi W, Bowman D, Rufty T. 2011. Organic matter accumulation in creeping bentgrass greens: A chronosequence with implications for management and carbon sequestration. Agronomy J 103: 604-610.
Wherley BG, DC Bowman, TW Rufty. 2011. Effect of soil saturation on development and 15N-nitrate uptake efficiency of two warm season grasses emerging from dormancy. Journal of Plant Nutrition 34: 2039-2054 .
Shi W, D Bowman, T Rufty. 2011. Microbial control of soil carbon accumulation in turfgrass systems. In R Lal, ed, Carbon Sequestration in Urban Ecosystems, Springer, pp 215-231. Springer Publishers, NY.

Matthieu DE, D C Bowman, B Thapa, DK Cassel, TW Rufty. 2011. Turfgrass root response to subsurface soil compaction. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 42:22, 2813-2823.

Cheng L,  Zhu J, Chen G, Zheng X, Oh NO, Rufty TW, Richter DB, Hu S 2010. Atmospheric CO2 enrichment facilitates cation release from soil. Ecology Letters 13: 284-291.
Taylor MD, PV Nelson, JM Frantz, TW Rufty. 2010. Phosphorus deficiency in Pelargonium: Effects on nitrate and ammonium uptake and acidity generation. Journal of Plant Nutrition 33, 1-12.
Dell, E., D. Bowman, T. Rufty, W. Shi, 2010. The community composition of soil-denitrifying bacteria from a turfgrass environment. Research in Microbiology 161, 315-325.

Wherley BG, W Shi, DC Bowman, TW Rufty. 2009. Fate of 15N-nitrate applied to a bermudagrass system: Assimilation profiles in different seasons. Crop Science 49, 2291-2301.

Hixson AC, W Shi, JB Weber, FH Yelverton, TW Rufty. 2009. Soil organic matter changes in turfgrass systems affect binding and biodegradation of simazine. Crop Science 49:1481-1488.

Purcell, LC, TE Carter, Jr., TR Sinclair, CA King, P Chen, HR Boerma, JD Ray, DV Charlson, JH Orf, JE Specht, TW Rufty, and F Fritschi. 2009. Tweaking the genetics and physiology of soybean to increase dryland yields. Proc. of the 39th Soybean Seed Res. Conf., CD-ROM, Am. Seed Trade Assoc., Alexandria , VA.

Seth-Carley D, S Davis, D Bowman, L Tredway, T Rufty, C Peacock. 2009. Effluent application to creeping bentgrass in the transition zone: Effluent analysis and potential negative effects from salinity and low oxygen. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal. 11:1023-1031.

Yao H, D Bowman, T Rufty, W Shi. 2009. Interactions between N fertilization, grass clipping addition, and pH in turf ecosystems: implications for soil enzyme activities and organic matter decomposition. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 41, 1425-1432.

Rufty T, G Miller, C Peacock, M Jennette, L Warren, D Seth-Carley, D Bowman, F Yelverton. 2008. Water quality adjacent to golf courses in the southern Applachia. Acta Horticulturae, 783:229-238.

Sermons SM, MG Burton, TW Rufty. 2008. Temperature response of Benghal Dayflower (Commelina benghalensis): Implications for geographic range. Weed Science 56: 707-713.

Place GP, DC Bowman, MG Burton, TW Rufty. 2008. Root penetration through a high bulk density soil layer: Differential response of a crop and weed species. Plant and Soil, 307: 179-190.

Naegle, E, P Kwanyuen, J Burton, T Carter, and T Rufty. 2008.  Seed nitrogen mobilization in soybean: Effects of seed nitrogen content and external nitrogen fertility.  Journal of Plant Nutrition, 31(2) 367-379.   

Shi W, DC Bowman, TW Rufty. 2007. Soil microbial community composition and function in turfgrass ecosystems. Biodiversity and Bioavailability, 1: 72-77. 

Dell EA, DC Bowman, TW Rufty, W Shi 2007. Intensive management affects composition of betaproteobacterial ammonia oxidizers in turfgrass systems. Microbial Ecology, 56: 178-190.

Sinclair T, E Fiscus, B Wherley, M Durham, TW Rufty. 2007. Atmospheric vapor pressure deficit is critical in predicting growth response of 'cool-season' grass Festuca arundinaceae to temperature change. Planta, 227: 273-276.

Tungate KD, DW Israel, DWH Watson, TW Rufty. 2007. Potential shifts in weed interference in an agroecological system with elevated temperatures. Environmental and Experimental Botany60: 42-49.

Fiscus EL, FL Booker, J-JB Dubois, TR Rufty, JW Burton, WA Pursley. 2007. CO2 enhancement effects in container- versus ground-grown soybeans at equal planting densities. Crop Science, 47:2486-2494.  

Tu, C., F.L. Booker, D.M. Watson, X. Chen, T.W. Rufty, S. Hu. 2006. Mycorrhizal mediation of plant N acquisition and residue decomposition: Impact of mineral N inputs. Global Change Biology12(5): 793-803.

Moyer-Henry, K.A., J.M. Burton, D.W. Israel, T.W. Rufty. 2006. Nitrogen transfer between plants: A 15N natural abundance study with crop and weed species. Plant and Soil, 282(1-2): 7-20.

Tungate KD, MG Burton, DJ Susko, SM Sermons, TW Rufty. 2006. Altered weed reproduction and maternal effects under low N fertility. Weed Science, 54: 847-853.

Causin, H.F., T.W. Rufty, J.F. Reynolds. 2006. Gas exchange and carbon metabolism in two Prosopis species from semiarid habitats: Effects of elevated CO2, N-supply and N- source. American Journal of Botany, 93: 716-723.

Carter, TE, JH Orf, LC Purcell, JE Specht, P Chen, TR Sinclair, TW Rufty. 2006. Tough times, tough plants – New soybean genes defend against drought and other stresses. Proceedings of the 33rd Soybean Seed Research Conference. CD-ROM, American Seed Trade AssociationAlexandria, VA.

Naegle, E.R., J.W. Burton, T.E. Carter, T.W. Rufty. 2005. Influence of seed nitrogen content on early leaf development and ability to recover from nitrogen stress. Plant and Soil, 271: 329-340.

 Moyer-Henry, KA, IR Silva, JS MacFall, E Johannes, NS Allen, B Goldfarb, TW Rufty. 2005. Accumulation and localization of aluminum in root tips of loblolly pine seedlings and associated ectomycorrhiza. Plant, Cell and Environment, 28: 111-120.

 Halfhill, M.D., H.S. Moon, J.P Sutherland, G.M Poppy, S.I Warwick, T.W. Rufty, A.K. Weissinger, P.L. Raymer, and C.N. Stewart, Jr. 2005. Growth, productivity, and competitiveness of introgressed weedy Brassica rapa hybrids selected for the presence of Btcry1Ac and gfp transgenes. Molecular Ecology, 14: 3177-3189.  

Causin, H.F., D.C. Tremmel, T.W. Rufty, J.F. Reynolds. 2004. Growth, nitrogen uptake, and metabolism in two semiarid shrubs grown at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations: Effects of nitrogen supply and source. American Journal of Botany, 91: 565-572.

Chiera, J.M., J.F. Thomas, TW Rufty. 2004. Growth and localized energy status in P-stressed soybean. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 27: 1875-1890.

McElroy, J.S., F.H. Yelverton, J.C. Neal, T.W. Rufty. 2004. Influence of photoperiod and temperature on vegetative growth and development of Florida Betony. Weed Science 52: 267-270.

Fagerness, M.J., D.C. Bowman, F.H. Yelverton, T.W. Rufty. 2004. Nitrogen use in Tifway bermudagrass as affected by trinexapac-ethyl. Crop Science, 44: 595-599.

Halfhill, M.D., R.J. Millwood, T.W. Rufty, A.K. Weissinger, C.N. Stewart. 2003. Spatial and temporal patterns of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence during leaf canopy development in transgenic canola. Plant Cell Reports, 22: 338-343.

Lee, D.J., D.C. Bowman, D.K. Cassel, CH Peacock, and TW Rufty. 2003. Soil inorganic nitrogen under fertilized bermudagrass turf. Crop Science 43:247-257.

Jennette, M.W., J.S. MacFall, and T.W. Rufty. 2003. Magnetic resonance image visualization of plant roots in situ, In TT van Toai, ed. Imaging and Spectral Techniques: Applications to Precision Agriculture and Crop Physiology. American Society of Agronomy, Special Publication 66, Madison, WI, 65-72.

Tungate, K.D., D.J. Susko, and T.W. Rufty. 2002. Reproduction and offspring competitiveness of Senna obtusifolia are influenced by nutrient availability. New Phytologist 154:661-669.

Thapa, B.B., D.C. Bowman, T.W. Rufty, D.K. Cassel, and C.H. Peacock. 2002. Soil nitrate concentrations under intensively managed turfgrass systems. International Turfgrass Research Journal 9:64-67.

Fagerness, M.J., F.H. Yelverton, D.P. Livingston, and T.W. Rufty. 2002. Temperature and trinexapac-ethyl effects on bermudagrass growth, dormancy, and freezing tolerance. Crop Science 42:853-858.

Chiera, J.M., J.F. Thomas, and T.W. Rufty. 2002. Leaf initiation and development in soybean under phosphorus stress. Journal of Experimental Botany 53:473-481.

Bowman, D.C., C.T. Cherney, and T.W. Rufty. 2002. Fate and transport of nitrogen applied to six warm-season turfgrasses. Crop Science 42:833-841.

Villagarcia, M.R., T.E. Carter, T.W. Rufty, A.S. Niewoehner, M.W. Jennette, and C. Arrellano. 2001. Genotypic rankings for aluminum tolerance of soybean roots grown in hydroponics and sand culture. Crop Science 41:1499-1507.

Silva, I.R., T.J. Smyth, D.W. Israel, and T.W. Rufty. 2001. Altered aluminum inhibition of soybean root elongation in the presence of magnesium. Plant and Soil 230:223-230.

Silva, I.R., T.J. Smyth, D.W. Israel, C.D. Raper, and T.W. Rufty. 2001. Magnesium is more efficient than calcium in alleviating aluminum rhizotoxicity in soybean and its ameliorative effect is not explained by the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model. Plant Cell Physiology 42:538-545.

Silva, I.R., T.J. Smyth, D.W. Israel, C.D. Raper, and T.W. Rufty. 2001. Magnesium ameliorates aluminum rhizotoxicity in soybean by increasing citric acid production and exudation by roots. Plant Cell Physiology 42:546-554.

Silva, I.R., T.J. Smyth, C.D. Raper, T.E. Carter, and T.W. Rufty. 2001. Differential aluminum tolerance in soybean: An evaluation of the role of organic acids. Physiologia Plantarum 112:200-210.

Lee, D.J., W.A. J., D.C. Bowman, C.H. Peacock, and T.W. Rufty. 2001. Temperature effects on nitrogen mineralization from soil collected under managed bermudagrass turf. International Turfgrass Research Journal 9:394-397.

Bigelow, C.A., D.C. Bowman, D.K. Cassel, and T.W. Rufty. 2001. Creeping bentgrass response to inorganic soil amendments and mechanically induced subsurface drainage and aeration. Crop Science 41:797-805.

Silva, I.R., T.J. Smyth, D.F. Moxley, T.E. Carter, N.S. Allen, and T.W. Rufty. 2000. Aluminum accumulation at nuclei of cells in the root tip: Fluorescence detection using lumogallion and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Plant Physiology 123:543-552.

Jackson, D.M., T.W. Rufty, A.S. Heagle, R.F. Severson, and R.V.W. Eckel. 2000. Survival and development of tobacco hornworm larvae on tobacco plants grown under elevated levels of ozone. Journal of Chemical Ecology 26:1-19.

Jackson, D.M., R.V.W. Eckel, T.W. Rufty, and A.S. Heagle. 2000. Survival and development of aphids on tobacco plants grown under elevated levels of ozone. Tobacco Science 43:47-57.

Bianchi-Hall, C.M., T.E. Carter, M.A. Bailey, M.A.R. Mian, T.W. Rufty, D.A. Ashley, H.R. Boerma, C. Arellano, R.S. Hussey, and W.A. Parrott. 2000. Aluminum tolerance associated with quantitative trait loci derived from soybean PI 416937 in hydroponics. Crop Science 40:538-545.

Wright, S.R., H.D. Coble, C.D. Raper, Jr., and T.W. Rufty, Jr. 1999. Comparative responses of soybean (Glycine max), sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia), and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) to root zone and aerial temperatures. Weed Science 47:167-174.

Wright, S.R., M.W. Jennette, H.D. Coble, and T.W. Rufty. 1999. Root morphology of young Glycine max, Senna obtusifolia, and Amaranthus palmeri. Weed Science 47:706-711.

Reich, R.C., and T.W. Rufty. 1999. Growth and nutrition of flue-cured tobacco exposed to aluminum in solution culture. Tobacco Science 43:1-6.

Bruneau, A.H., F.H. Yelverton, I. J., and T.W. Rufty. 1999. Effect of plant growth regulators on suppression of Poa Annua Ssp. Reptans in a creeping bentgrass, In M. F. ed., ed. Proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf. Human Kinetics, publ. pp 647-654.

Gojon, A., L. Dapoigny, L. Lejay, P. Tillard, and T.W. Rufty. 1998. Effects of genetic modification of nitrate reductase expression on15NO3- uptake and reduction in Nicotiana plants. Plant Cell Environment 21:43-53.

Bowman, D.C., D.A. Devitt, M.C. Engelke, and T.W. Rufty. 1998. Root architecture affects nitrate leaching from bentgrass turf. Crop Science 38:1633-1639.

Bianchi Hall, C.M., T.E. Carter, Jr., T.W. Rufty, C. Arellano, H.R. Boerma, D.A. Ashley, and J.W. Burton. 1998. Heritability and resource allocation of aluminum tolerance derived from soybean PI 416937. Crop Science 38:513-522.

Rufty, T.W. 1997. Probing the carbon and nitrogen interaction: a whole plant perspective. In CH Foyer, P Quick, eds, A Molecular Approach to Primary Metabolism in Higher Plants. Taylor and Francis, London, U.K. pp 255-273.

Ameziane, R., L. Cassan, C. Dufosse, T.W. Rufty, and A.M. Limami. 1997. Phosphate availability in combination with nitrate availability affects root yield, and chicon yield and quality of Belgian endive. Plant and Soil 191:269-277.

Agrell, D., C.M. Larsson, M. Larsson, C.T. MacKown, and T.W. Rufty. 1997. Initial kinetics of 15N-nitrate labeling of root and shoot N fractions of barley cultured at different relative addition rates of nitrate-N. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 35:923-931.

Lazof, D.B., J.G. Goldsmith, T.W. Rufty, and R.W. Linton. 1996. The early entry of Al into cells of intact soybean roots - A comparison of three developmental root regions using secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. Plant Physiology 112:1289-1300.

Rufty, T.W., C.T. MacKown, D.B. Lazof, and T.E. Carter. 1995. Effects of aluminium on nitrate uptake and assimilation. Plant Cell Environment 18:1325-1331.

Rufty, T.W., R.B. Thomas, J.D. Cure, and W.W. Cure. 1994. Growth-response of cotton to CO2 enrichment in differing light environments. Physiologia Plantarum 91:503-509.

Lazof, D.B., J.G. Goldsmith, T.W. Rufty, and R.W. Linton. 1994. Rapid uptake of aluminum into cells of intact soybean root tips. A microanalytical study using secondary ion mass spectrometry. Plant Physiology 106:1107-1114.

Lazof, D.B., M. Rincon, T.W. Rufty, C.T. Mackown, and T.E. Carter. 1994. Aluminum accumulation and associated effects on 15N-NO3- influx in roots of two soybean genotypes differing in Al tolerance. Plant and Soil 164:291-297.

Lazof, D.B., J.K.G. Goldsmith, T.W. Rufty, C. Suggs, and R.W. Linton. 1994. The preparation of cryosections from plant-tissue - an alternative method appropriate for secondary-ion mass-spectrometry. Journal of Microscopy 176:99-109.

Rufty, T.W., Jr., D.W. Israel, R.J. Volk, J. Qiu, and T. Sa. 1993. Phosphate regulation of nitrate assimilation in soybean. Journal of Experimental Botany 44:879-891.

Lazof, D.B., J.G. Goldsmith, T.W. Rufty, and R.W. Linton. 1993. SIMS determination of metal contamination and nutrient tracers in freeze-dried cryosection of plant roots. Microbeam Analysis 2:5114-5115.

Goldsmith, J.G., D.B. Lazof, W.H. Schroeder, A.T. Kubin, T.W. Rufty, and R.W. Linton. 1993. Applications of secondary ion image analysis for quantification of isotope and elemental nutrient tracers in biological tissues, In e. A Benninghoven, ed. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, SIMS IX. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY. pp. 824-828.

Carter, T.E., and T.W. Rufty. 1993. A soybean plant introduction exhibiting drought and aluminum tolerance, In e. G.Kuo, ed. Adaptation of Vegetables and other Food Crops to Temperature and Water Stress. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, Publ, Tainan, Taiwan. pp. 335-346.

Rufty, T.W., R.J. Volk, and A.D.M. Glass. 1992. Relationship between carbohydrate availability and assimilation of nitrate, In D. J. Pilbeam, C. Mengel, eds. Nitrogen Metabolism of Plants. Clarendon Press, ed., Oxford, U.K. pp. 103-119.

Rufty, T.W., D.B. Lazof, and T.E. Carter. 1992. Root morphology and the acquisition of nitrate and water, In H Reetz ed., Roots in Plant Nutrition. Foundation for Agronomic Research, publ, Atlanta, Ga. pp. 157-168.

Lazof, D.B., T.W. Rufty, M.G. Redinbaugh, and R.W. Linton. 1992. SIMS localization of nitrate absorption sites and the radial transport pathway across the corn root, In A Benninghoven, ed. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY. pp. 685-688.

Lazof, D.B., T.W. Rufty, and M.G. Redinbaugh. 1992. Localization of nitrate absorption and translocation within morphological regions of the corn root. Plant Physiology 100:1251-1258.

Lazof, D., R.W. Linton, R.J. Volk, and T.W. Rufty. 1992. The application of SIMS to nutrient tracer studies in plant physiology. Biology of the Cell 74:127-134.

Sisson, V.A., T.W. Rufty, and R.E. Williamson. 1991. Nitrogen-use efficiency among flue-cured tobacco genotypes. Crop Science 31:1615-1620.

Rufty, T.W., M.Y. Siddiqi, A.D.M. Glass, and T.J. Ruth. 1991. Altered 13NO3- influx in phosphorus limited plants. Plant Science 76:43-48.

Lazof, D., M. Rincon, T.W. Rufty, Jr., C.T. MacKown, and T.E. Carter, Jr. 1991. Aluminum absorption by five morphological regions of the soybean root and effects on nitrate influx. Current Topics in Plant Biochemistry and Physiology. University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo.

Cure, J.D., T.W. Rufty, and D.W. Israel. 1991. Assimilate relations in source and sink leaves during acclimation to a CO2-enriched atmosphere. Physiologia Plantarum 83:687-695.

Siddiqi, M.Y., A.D.M. Glass, T.J. Ruth, and T.W. Rufty. 1990. Studies of the uptake of nitrate in barley. I. Kinetics of 13NO3- influx. Plant Physiology 93:1426-1432.

Rufty, T.W., Jr., C.T. MacKown, and D.W. Israel. 1990. Phosphorus stress effects on assimilation of nitrate. Plant Physiology 94:328-333.

Rufty, T.W., C.T. Mackown, and R.J. Volk. 1990. Alterations in nitrogen assimilation and partitioning in nitrogen stressed plants. Physiologia Plantarum 79:85-95.

Israel, D.W., T.W. Rufty, Jr., and J.D. Cure. 1990. Nitrogen and phosphorus nutritional interactions in a CO2 enriched environment. Journal of Plant Nutrition 13:1419-1433.

Glass, A.D.M., M.Y. Siddiqi, T.J. Ruth, and T.W. Rufty. 1990. Studies of the uptake of nitrate in barley. II. Energetics. Plant Physiology 93:1585-1589.

Rufty, T.W. 1989. Internal nitrogen and phosphorus interactions and physiological responses in soybean, p. pp. 53-69, In R. D. Munson, ed. The Physiology, Biochemistry, Nutrition, and Bioengineering of Soybeans: Implications for Future Management. Foundation for Agronomic Research, publ, Atlanta, Ga.

Rufty, T.W., Jr., D.M. Jackson, R.F. Severson, J.J. Lam, Jr., and M.E. Snook. 1989. Alterations in growth and chemical constituents of tobacco in response to CO2 enrichment. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 37:552-555.

Rufty, T.W., Jr., C.T. MacKown, and R.J. Volk. 1989. Effects of altered carbohydrate availability on whole-plant assimilation of 15NO3-. Plant Physiology 89:457-463.

Cure, J.D., T.W. Rufty, and D.W. Israel. 1989. Alterations in soybean leaf development and photosynthesis in a CO2 -enriched atmosphere. Botanical Gazette 150:337-345.

Rufty, T.W., Jr., S.C. Huber, and R.J. Volk. 1988. Alterations in leaf carbohydrate metabolism in response to nitrogen stress. Plant Physiology 88:725-730.

Israel, D.W., and T.W. Rufty, Jr. 1988. Influence of phosphorus nutrition on phosphorus and nitrogen utilization efficiencies and associated physiological responses in soybean. Crop Science 28:954-960.

Cure, J.D., D.W. Israel, and T.W. Rufty, Jr. 1988. Nitrogen stress effects on growth and seed yield of non-nodulated soybean exposed to elevated carbon dioxide. Crop Science 28:671-677.

Cure, J.D., T.W. Rufty, Jr., and D.W. Israel. 1988. Phosphorus stress effects on growth and seed yield responses of nonnodulated soybean to elevated carbon dioxide. Agronomy Journal 80:897-902.

Rufty, T.W., R.J. Volk, and C.T. Mackown. 1987. Endogenous NO3- in the root as a source of substrate for reduction in the light. Plant Physiology 84:1421-1426.

Mackown, C.T., T.W. Rufty, and R.J. Volk. 1987. Assimilation of 15NO3- by plants during the light dark cycle and extended darkness. Journal of Plant Nutrition 10:1885-1885.

Cure, J.D., T.W. Rufty, Jr., and D.W. Israel. 1987. Assimilate utilization in the leaf canopy and whole-plant growth of soybean during acclimation to elevated CO2. Botanical Gazette 148:67-72.

Rufty, T.W. 1986. Using root biochemistry and physiology to improve corn productivity, p. 1-22, In R. D. Munson, ed. Physiology, Biochemistry and Chemistry Associated with Maximum Yield Corn. Foundation for Agronomic Research, publ, Atlanta, G. A.

Rufty, T.W., Jr., J.F. Thomas, J.L. Remmler, W.H. Campbell, and R.J. Volk. 1986. Intercellular localization of nitrate reductase in roots. Plant Physiology 82:675-680.

Rufty, T.W., and R.J. Volk. 1986. Alterations in enrichment of NO3- and reduced-N in xylem exudate during and after extended plant-exposure to 15NO3-. Plant and Soil 91:329-332.

Kerr, P.S., D.W. Israel, S.C. Huber, and T.W. Rufty, Jr. 1986. Effect of supplemental NO3- on plant growth and components of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in soybean. Canadian Journal of Botany 64:2020-2027.

Rufty, T.W., Jr., S.C. Huber, and P.S. Kerr. 1985. Association between sucrose-phosphate synthase activity in leaves and plant growth rate in response to altered aerial temperature. Plant Science 39:7-12.

Kerr, P.S., and T.W. Rufty, Jr. 1985. Endogenous rhythms in photosynthesis, sucrose phosphate synthase activity, and stomatal resistance in leaves of soybean. Plant Physiology 77:275-280.

Kerr, P.S., T.W. Rufty, and S.C. Huber. 1985. Changes in nonstructural carbohydrates in different parts of soybean plants during a light/dark cycle and in extended darkness. Plant Physiology 78:576-581.

Huber, S.C., P.S. Kerr, and T.W. Rufty. 1985. Diurnal changes in sucrose phosphate synthase activity in leaves. Physiologia Plantarum 64:81-87.

Rufty, T.W., Jr., C.D. Raper, Jr., and S.C. Huber. 1984. Alterations in internal partitioning of carbon in soybean plants in response to nitrogen stress. Canadian Journal of Botany 62:501-508.

Rufty, T.W., Jr., S.C. Huber, and P.S. Kerr. 1984. Effects of canopy defoliation in the dark on the activity of sucrose phosphate synthase. Plant Science Letters 34:247-252.

Rufty, T.W., D.W. Israel, and R.J. Volk. 1984. Assimilation of 15NO3- taken up by plants in the light and in the dark. Plant Physiology 76:769-775.

Huber, S.C., D.C. Doehiert, T.W. Rufty, and P.S. Kerr. 1984. Regulation of sucrose phosphate synthase activity in leaves, p. 605-608, In e. C. Sybesma, ed. Advances in Photosynthesis Research. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr Junk, publishers.

Huber, S.C., T.W. Rufty, and P.S. Kerr. 1984. Effect of photoperiod on photosynthate partitioning and diurnal rhythms in sucrose phosphate synthase activity in leaves of soybean and tobacco. Plant Physiology 75:1080-1084.

Rufty, T.W., P.S. Kerr, and S.C. Huber. 1983. Characterization of diurnal changes in activities of enzymes involved in sucrose biosynthesis. Plant Physiology 73:428-433.

Rufty, T.W., C.D. Raper, Jr., and W.A. Jackson. 1983. Growth and nitrogen assimilation of soybeans in response to ammonium and nitrate nutrition. Botanical Gazette 144:466-470.

Rufty, T.W., and S.C. Huber. 1983. Changes in starch formation and activities of sucrose phosphate synthase and cytoplasmic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in response to source-sink alterations. Plant Physiology 72:474-480.

Huber, S.C., T.W. Rufty, P.S. Kerr, and D. Doehlert. 1983. Different mechanisms for the regulation of sucrose phosphate synthase, a key enzyme in photosynthetic sucrose formation. Current Topics in Plant Biochemistry and Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo 2:20-32.

Rufty, T.W., R.J. Volk, P.R. McClure, D.W. Israel, and C.D. Raper, Jr. 1982. The relative content of N03- and reduced-N in xylem exudate as an indicator of root reduction of concurrently absorbed 15N03-. Plant Physiology 69:166-170.

Rufty, T.W., C.D. Raper, Jr., and W.A. Jackson. 1982. Nitrate uptake, root and shoot growth, and ion balance of soybean plants during acclimation to root-zone acidity. Botanical Gazette 143:5-14.

Rufty, T.W., W.A. Jackson, and C.D. Raper, Jr. 1982. Inhibition of nitrate assimilation in roots in the presence of ammonium: the moderating influence of potassium. Journal of Experimental Botany 33:1122-1137.

Rufty, T.W., C.D. Raper, and W.A. Jackson. 1981. Nitrogen assimilation, root growth and whole plant responses of soybean to root temperature and to CO2 and light in the aerial environment. New Phytologist 88:607-619.

Rufty, T.W., W.A. Jackson, and C.D. Raper, Jr. 1981. Nitrate reduction in roots as affected by the presence of potassium and by flux of nitrate through the root. Plant Physiology 68:605-609.

Rufty, T.W., G.S. Miner, and C.D. Raper, Jr. 1979. Temperature effects on growth and manganese tolerance in tobacco. Agronomy Journal 71:638-644.

Research Group

  • Students are cross-trained in several disciplines
  • Courses range from genetics and molecular biology to whole-plant physiology and ecology
  • Programs are designed for individual interests

Chenxi Zhang, Postdoctoral Research Scholar. Born and raised in suburban Chengdu, China. BS in Plant Science at Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2007. Received Outstanding Undergraduate Thesis Award and Academic Excellence Awards. Completed Ph.D. in Plant Physiology from the Crop Science Department at NC State University in 2012. His research investigated 15N assimilation by roots of grass species. Current research focuses on transformation of fertilizer nitrogen in agricultural soil, gaseous losses of fertilizer nitrogen, and processes controlling nitrogen uptake efficiency in crop plants.


Avat Shekoofa, Postdoctoral Research Scholar. Native of northwestern Iran, she graduated from Buali-Sina Agriculture University, Hamedan, Iran with a BS in Crop Production and Plant Breeding. Received MS and Ph.D degrees (Agronomy) from Shiraz University College of Agriculture, Shiraz, Iran. Visiting scientist at Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Argentina (2009-2010). Ph.D research was focused on kernel development of maize as affected by source/sink ratio (written and presented in English). Current research centers on water stress in turfgrass and crop species. Particular emphasis is given to identifying genetic traits that impart drought tolerance. Fluent in Persian, Kurdish, English, Spanish, and French.


Shannon Sermons, Ph.D candidate. A native of Plymouth, NC. Graduated from the North Carolina School of Science and Math and the Florida State University with a BS (cum laude) in Biological Science. Holds an MS degree in Crop Science from NCSU. Her research centered on environmental restraints on weed species invasions and geographic range. Her current Ph.D research centers on the physiological basis for plant responses to water and nutrient stresses by grasses and crop species.


Laura Vance,  Ph.D candidate. A Holly Springs, North Carolina native. Graduated cum laude from N.C. State with a BS in Biological Sciences. Her co-major in Crop Science/Plant Physiology and Nutrition with a minor in Soil Science.   Past research has spanned from aluminum toxicity effects on plants to an evaluationof the weed purslane as as free-range forage for local omega-3 egg production in tropical America. Her current research is focused on greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural systems and improving the nitrogen use efficiency of crop plants.

Matt Taggart

Matt Taggart, Ph.D student. A western Pennsylvania native, Matt graduated from Slippery Rock University of PA with a BS in Environmental Science. He then entered a graduate program in the Soil Science Department at North Carolina State and received an MS in Soil Physics. His research interests have spanned from passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage to physical and biological controls governing carbon mineralization. Matt's current Ph.D  research centers on soil water dynamics and management approaches to ameliorate drought stress in plants.

Mandeep Riar, Postdoctoral Research Scholar. Originally from India, she graduated first division from Khalsa College, Amritsar, India with a BS in Agricultural Sciences. Received MS degree (Agricultural Meteorology) in first division in 2007 from Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. Completed Ph.D in Weed Science/Physiology from N.C. State University in 2012. Ph.D research was focused on environmental, cultural, and biological factors influencing the growth and spread of the invasive weed Benghal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis) in the U.S. Current research is focused on understanding water stress in soybean, sorghum and turfgrass and identifying potential genotypes for better drought tolerance.


Pablo Rosas-Anderson, Ph.D student.  Born in Peru and raised in Orlando, FL.  Graduated cum laude from the University of Florida with a BS in Horticultural Sciences.  Recipient of Phelps Foundation and Florida Bright Futures scholarships. Selected for Epcot Science Professional Internship program at the Walt Disney World in 2011. MS degree in Crop Science at N.C. State with research on leaf retention, transpiration recovery, and nitrogen fixation of peanut during drought stress. Current research examines nitrogen assimilation and the fate of nitrogen in agricultural systems. Bi-lingual in English and Spanish.


Laleh Bagherzadi, Ph.D student. Originally from Azerbaijan. BS degree in Agronomy from Urmia University. Received MS in Plant Biology from N.C. State in 2011 with research focused on drought tolerance in transgenic tomato overexpressing Calreticulin protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. PhD research emphasis is on identification of genetic/physiological traits and regulation N2 fixation in drought tolerant soybean. Fluent in Azeri, Turkish, Persian and English.

phil Philip Hatfield, Research Assistant. Originally from West Virginia, Phil spent 11 years as a chef in some of the trendiest restaurants on the west coast. He has come back east to be closer to friends and family, and has now made North Carolina his home. One of the research group’s ‘remarkable intellects’, he has returned to the classroom to finish a degree in History and Political Science. 

William "Boo" Blount. Research Assistant. From Salisbury, NC. Graduated in May 2008 with a BS degree in Sport Management from N.C. State University. A research assistant in crop management and environmental physiology programs throughout undergraduate school. Graduated with an AAS degree in Turfgrass Management at NCSU in 2010. Worked in internship programs on world class golf courses in Oregon and Arizona. Manages field research projects in the Plant Environmental Biology Research program while pursuing graduate education.



SinclairDr. Thomas Sinclair
Professor (Crop Physiology)
Department of Crop Science
North Carolina State University
DaneshaDr. Danesha Seth Carley
Research Assistant Professor
Coordinator for CALS Sustainability Programs
North Carolina State University
Wayne RobargeDr. Wayne Robarge
Professor (Soil Physical Chemistry)
Department of Soil Science
North Carolina State University

Wei ShiDr. Wei Shi
Associate Professor (Soil Microbiology and Ecology)
Department of Soil Science
North Carolina State University